Attacks against databases have become one of the most popular and lucrative activities for hackers recently. New data breaches seem to be popping up every week, but even with all of that attention, databases continue to be a prime target. All of these attacks have to start somewhere, and we'll be exploring a variety of methods to gather information on PostgreSQL databases with Metasploit.
It's been said time and time again: reconnaissance is perhaps the most critical phase of an attack. It's especially important when preparing an attack against a database since one wrong move can destroy every last bit of data, which usually isn't the desired outcome. Metasploit contains a variety of modules that can be used to enumerate MySQL databases, making it easy to gather valuable information.
Samba can be configured to allow any user with write access the ability to create a link to the root filesystem. Once an attacker has this level of access, it's only a matter of time before the system gets owned. Although this configuration isn't that common in the wild, it does happen, and Metasploit has a module to easily exploit this security flaw.
Post-exploitation information gathering can be a long and drawn-out process, but it is an essential step when trying to pivot or establish advanced persistence. Every hacker should know how to enumerate a target manually, but sometimes it is worth it to automate the process. Metasploit contains post modules that can quickly gather valuable information about a target, saving both time and effort.
So you've managed to get a shell on the target, but you only have measly low-level privileges. Now what? Privilege escalation is a vast field and can be one of the most rewarding yet frustrating phases of an attack. We could go the manual route, but like always, Metasploit makes it easy to perform local privilege escalation and get root with its exploit suggester module.
It is said that the best way to avoid detection when hacking is to leave no trace, and often that means not touching the filesystem at all. But realistically, in most cases, it's impossible not to interact with the filesystem in one way or another. The next best thing to do to throw off any investigators is to change the file attributes to hide activity. We can do this with Metasploit's Timestomp.
Passwords on Windows are stored as hashes, and sometimes they can be tough to crack. In certain situations, though, we can get around that by using the hash as is, with no need to know the plaintext password. It's especially interesting if we can manage to get the hash of an administrative user since we can then authenticate with higher privileges by performing an attack known as pass the hash.
UAC is something we've all dealt with on Windows, either as a user, administrator, or attacker. It's a core feature of the Windows security model, and for the most part, it does what it's supposed to. But it can be frustrating as a hacker when attempting privilege escalation, but it's easy enough to bypass UAC and obtain System access with Metasploit.
Particular vulnerabilities and exploits come along and make headlines with their catchy names and impressive potential for damage. EternalBlue is one of those exploits. Originally tied to the NSA, this zero-day exploited a flaw in the SMB protocol, affecting many Windows machines and wreaking havoc everywhere. Here, we will use EternalBlue to exploit SMB via Metasploit.
Popping a shell is often the main goal of a hacker, and it can be exciting when executed properly, but sometimes they do have their limitations. Metasploit's Meterpreter probably needs no introduction, but this powerful, dynamic payload can offer a leg up over normal shells. To prove it, we'll show how to take a normal command shell and elevate it to a Meterpreter session.
Things that are supposed to make life easier for developers and users are often easy targets for exploitation by hackers. Like many situations in the tech world, there is usually a trade-off between convenience and security. One such trade-off is found in a system known as Distributed Ruby, which can be compromised easily with Metasploit.
The ability to stay organized and be resourceful with data gathered from recon is one of the things that separates the true hackers from the script kiddies. Metasploit contains a built-in database that allows for efficient storage of information and the ability to utilize that information to better understand the target, which ultimately leads to more successful exploitation.
One of the best ways to improve your skills as a hacker is to learn to combine different avenues of attack to achieve success. What if it were possible to get a victim to connect to our machine and execute a chosen payload on our behalf? This is indeed possible with the almighty Metasploit and the aid of a technique known as command injection.
In the world of technology, there's often a trade-off between convenience and security. The Java Remote Method Invocation is a system where that trade-off is all too real. The ability for a program written in Java to communicate with another program remotely can greatly extend the usability of an app, but it can also open up critical vulnerabilities that allow it to be compromised by an attacker.
One of the things that sets a seasoned hacker apart from the script kiddies is the ability to effectively sneak past antivirus defenses when executing an attack. One way to do this is to use custom shellcode in an exploit. Not everyone is an expert at writing shellcode, but luckily there's an easy way to do this that is both quick and effective.
Having an efficient workflow is an integral part of any craft, but it's especially important when it comes to probing apps for vulnerabilities. While Metasploit is considered the de facto standard when it comes to exploitation, it also contains modules for other activities, such as scanning. Case in point, WMAP, a web application scanner available for use from within the Metasploit framework.
One of the first steps in reconnaissance is determining the open ports on a system. Nmap is widely considered the undisputed king of port scanning, but certain situations call for different tools. Metasploit makes it easy to conduct port scanning from directly inside the framework, and we'll show you three types of port scans: TCP, SYN, and XMAS.
Welcome back, my budding hackers! In this series, I have been trying to familiarize you with the many features of the world's best framework for exploitation, hacking, and pentesting, Metasploit. There are so many features, and techniques for using those features, that few pentesters/hackers are aware of all of them.
Welcome back, my hacker novitiates! In the previous part of this series, we looked at how to use Metasploit's web delivery exploit to create a script to connect to a UNIX, Linux, or OS X machine using Python. Many members of the Null Byte community have asked me, "Can we do the same for a Windows systems?" The answer is YES!
Welcome back, my budding hackers! Metasploit, one of my favorite hacking/pentesting tools, has so many capabilities that even after my many tutorials on it, I have only scratched the surface of it capabilities. For instance, it can be used with Nexpose for vulnerability scanning, with Nmap for port scanning, and with its numerous auxiliary modules, nearly unlimited other hacking related capabilities.
Welcome back, my neophyte hackers! Metasploit is such a powerful tool that I can only scratch the surface of its capabilities here. As it has developed over the years, it is now possible to use Metasploit for nearly everything from recon to post exploitation to covering your tracks. Given its versatility, every aspiring hacker should have at least a tentative grasp of Metasploit.
Welcome back, my greenhorn hackers! Throughout this series on Metasploit, and in most of my hacking tutorials here on Null Byte that use Metasploit (there are many; type "metasploit" into the search bar and you will find dozens), I have focused primarily on just two types of modules: exploits and payloads. Remember, Metasploit has six types of modules:
Welcome back, my tenderfoot hackers! One of the issues we often encounter with Metasploit is how to add new modules. Although Rapid7 (Metasploit's owner and developer) periodically updates Metasploit with new exploits, payloads, and other modules, at times, new modules appear that are not added to the Metasploit repository.
Hack Like a Pro: Metasploit for the Aspiring Hacker, Part 8 (Setting Up a Fake SMB Server to Capture Domain Passwords)
Welcome back, my neophyte hackers! In previous tutorials, we learned how to steal system tokens that we could use to access resources, how to use hashdump to pull password hashes from a local system, and how to grab password hashes from a local system and crack them.
Welcome back, my novice hackers! In this continuing series on Metasploit basics, let's next look at a module that many aspiring hackers find useful—autopwn.
Welcome back, my tenderfoot hackers! Hacker newbies have an inordinate fixation on password cracking. They believe that cracking the password is the only way to gain access to the target account and its privileges. If what we really want is access to a system or other resources, sometimes we can get it without a password. Good examples of this are replay attacks and MitM attacks. Neither requires us to have passwords to have access to the user's resources.
Welcome back, my hacker novitiates! Eluding and evading antivirus software and intrusion detection systems is one of the most critical tasks of the hacker. As soon as a new exploit is developed and discovered, the AV and IDS developers build a signature for the attack, which is then likely to be detected and prevented.
Welcome back, my hacker novitiates! As you know by now, the Metasploit Framework is one of my favorite hacking tools. It is capable of embedding code into a remote system and controlling it, scanning systems for recon, and fuzzing systems to find buffer overflows. Plus, all of this can be integrated into Rapid7's excellent vulnerability scanner Nexpose.
Welcome back, my tenderfoot hackers! As you know, Metasploit is an exploitation framework that every hacker should be knowledgeable of and skilled at. It is one of my favorite hacking tools available.
Welcome back, my rookie hackers! I recently began a series on using Metasploit, and my goal with it is to teach you the very basics the incredibly powerful hacking tool has to offer while progressively moving on to the more advanced features.
Welcome back, my tenderfoot hackers! I have written many tutorials on hacking using Metasploit, including leaving no evidence behind and exploring the inner architecture. Also, there are my Metasploit cheat sheets for commands and hacking scripts.
Welcome back, my hacker novitiates! In previous guides, we have used one of the most powerful hacking platforms on the planet, Metasploit, to perform numerous hacks. They ranged from exploiting Windows XP and Windows 7/8 vulnerabilities, to installing a keylogger and turning on a webcam remotely. We have even been able to save the world from nuclear annihilation, see if our girlfriend is cheating, spy on suspicious neighbors, evade antivirus detection, and more.
Welcome back, my novice hackers! We've done a number of tutorials using one of my favorite hacking tools, Metasploit. In each of them, we've used the msfconsole, which can be reached through either the menu system or through simply typing "msfconsole" from the terminal.
Welcome back, my hacker apprentices! Metasploit framework is an incredible hacking and pentesting tool that every hacker worth their salt should be conversant and capable on.
I've done numerous tutorials in Null Byte demonstrating the power of Metasploit's meterpreter. With the meterpreter on the target system, you have nearly total command of the victim.