File inclusion can allow an attacker to view files on a remote host they shouldn't be able to see, and can even allow us to run code on a target! Today we'll be exploring PHP file inclusion using the Damn Vulnerable Web App to practice on. I will cover how both remote file inclusion and local file inclusion work, with the goal of achieving shell access to the vulnerable host.
Using a headless Raspberry Pi without a network connection can be a frustrating experience, but with the help of an old-school technique, we can SSH directly into our Pi with only a USB-to-TTL serial cable. This is also handy if we don't have a power source since we can both access and power our Linux distro with no peripherals needed.
With Virtual Network Computing, you don't need to rely on a directly connected keyboard, mouse, or monitor to access a headless computer's graphical user interface (GUI). Instead, you can connect remotely to a headless computer, such as a Raspberry Pi, and borrow the inputs of any available computer or smartphone to navigate the GUI on it.
SSH is a powerful tool with more uses than simply logging into a server. This protocol, which stands for Secure Shell, provides X11 forwarding, port forwarding, secure file transfer, and more. Using SSH port forwarding on a compromised host with access to a restricted network can allow an attacker to access hosts within the restricted network or pivot into the network.
PowerShell Empire is an amazing framework that is widely used by penetration testers for exploiting Microsoft Windows hosts. In our previous guide, we discussed why and when it's important to use, as well as some general info on listeners, stagers, agents, and modules. Now, we will actually explore setting up listeners and generating a stager.
OpenBSD implements security in its development in a way that no other operating system on the planet does. Learning to use the Unix-like operating system can help a hacker understand secure development, create better servers, and improve their understanding of the BSD operating system. Using VirtualBox, the OS can be installed within a host to create a full-featured test environment.
Any internet user will need to download files eventually, and most simply have faith that what they are downloading is trustworthy. This doesn't give much clarity into the contents of the file, but if the file's author published the original checksum, comparing it to the SHA-256 hash of the downloaded file can ensure nothing was tampered with.
The threat of an evil access point has been around for a long time, and with the rise of open public Wi-Fi, that threat is often overshadowed by how comfortable we are using third-party Wi-Fi hotspots at coffee shops and public spaces. While we've shown an evil twin attack using the Aircrack-ng suite of tools, MitmAP is a Python tool to configure custom APs for many types of wireless attacks.
The public leaks of NSA tools and information have led to the release of previously secret zero-day exploits such as EternalBlue, which was used in the notorious WannaCry ransomware attack. Despite multiple patches being released, many users have failed to update their systems, so many devices are still vulnerable to these now-public attacks.
Being able to write your own hacking tools is what separates the script kiddies from the legendary hackers. While this can take many forms, one of the most coveted skills in hacking is the ability to dig through the binary files of a program and identify vulnerabilities at the lowest level. This is referred to as binary exploitation, and today we're going to check out a tool known as Protostar.
A weak password is one that is short, common, or easy to guess. Equally bad are secure but reused passwords that have been lost by negligent third-party companies like Equifax and Yahoo. Today, we will use Airgeddon, a wireless auditing framework, to show how anyone can crack bad passwords for WPA and WPA2 wireless networks in minutes or seconds with only a computer and network adapter.
It looks like there is a fatal flaw in the current macOS High Sierra 10.13.1, even straight from the login menu when you first start up the computer. This severe vulnerability lets hackers — or anyone with malicious intentions — do anything they want as root users as long as they have physical access to the computer.
An attacker with shell access to a Linux server can manipulate, or perhaps even ruin, anything they have access to. While many more subtle attacks could provide significant value to a hacker, most attacks also leave traces. These traces, of course, can also be manipulated and avoided through methods such as shell scripting.
The Hacks of Mr. Robot: How to Use the Shodan API with Python to Automate Scans for Vulnerable Devices
Shodan calls itself "the search engine for internet-connected devices." With so many devices connected to the internet featuring varying levels of security, the special capabilities of this search engine mean it can provide a list of devices to test and attack. In this tutorial, we'll use Python to target specific software vulnerabilities and extract vulnerable target IP addresses from Shodan.
Proxies can be quicker to use than a VPN for specific applications, like web browsers or torrent clients. Both services will hide your true IP address, but a VPN is slowed down because it encrypts all data through a VPN network, while a proxy just acts as a middleman for fetching and returning requests from a server on your behalf. When speed is needed, go proxy.
Facebook really wants your phone number, nagging you for one as soon as you join. This isn't all bad since it can help secure your account with two-factor authentication. On the flipside, this makes it easy to reveal the private phone numbers of virtually anyone on Facebook, including celebrities and politicians. We're going to look at how a hacker would do this and how to protect yourself.
Hacking Pranks: How to Flip Photos, Change Images & Inject Messages into Friends' Browsers on Your Wi-Fi Network
Networking is built largely on trust. Most devices do not verify that another device is what it identifies itself to be, so long as it functions as expected. In the case of a man-in-the-middle attack, we can abuse this trust by impersonating a wireless access point, allowing us to intercept and modify network data. This can be dangerous for private data, but also be fun for pranking your friends.
Steganography is the art of hiding information in plain sight, and in this tutorial, I'll show you how to use Steghide — a very simple command line tool to do just that. In addition, I'll go over a bit of conceptual background to help you understand what's going on behind the scenes. This is a tool that's simple, configurable, and only takes a few seconds to hide information in many file types.
There are more than 2 billion Android devices active each month, any of which can be hacked with the use of a remote administration tool, more commonly known as a RAT. AhMyth, one of these powerful tools, can help outsiders monitor a device's location, see SMS messages, take camera snapshots, and even record with the microphone without the user knowing.
Internet Relay Chat, or IRC, is one of the most popular chat protocols on the internet. This technology can be connected to the Tor network in order to create an anonymous and secure chatroom, without the use of public IP addresses.
So much information exists online that it's easy to get lost in data while researching. Understanding the bigger picture can take a lot of time and energy, but narrowing the question to one that's easy to answer is the first step of any investigation. That's why analysts use open-source intelligence (OSINT) tools like Maltego — to help refine raw data into a complete understanding of a situation.
After exploiting a vulnerable target, scooping up a victim's credentials is a high priority for hackers, since most people reuse passwords. Those credentials can get hackers deeper into a network or other accounts, but digging through the system by hand to find them is difficult. A missed stored password could mean missing a big opportunity. But the process can largely be automated with LaZagne.
The default tool for payload generation is MSFvenom, a Metasploit standalone payload generator as well as encoder. This tool is an incredibly powerful tool for payload generation, but it can be difficult and requires a bit of reading for newer users.
In a previous article, we learned how to take advantage of a feature, Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE), to run malicious code when a Microsoft Word document is opened. The biggest challenge of this attack is that it requires getting the user to agree to a pop-up prompt. Fortunately, since I posted that article, many new obfuscation techniques have been discovered to make this easier. Today, we explore and combine some of them to make the ultimate hidden DDE attack.
While hackers adore the command line, working with the GUI (graphical user interface) of an operating system has some advantages. This is especially true when it comes to post-exploitation. When we can control the mouse and keyboard of a remote computer, we can truly say we have complete control over the device. Today, I'm going to introduce to you the PyAutoGUI module, which does just that, and just how much fun you can have with it!
In our previous article, we learned how to take advantage of a feature, Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE), to run malicious code when an MS Word document is opened. Because Microsoft built DDE into all of its Office products as a way to transfer data one time or continuously between applications, we can do the same thing in Excel to create a spreadsheet that runs malicious code when opened. The best part is, it will do so without requiring macros to be enabled.
Ransomware is software that encrypts a victim's entire hard drive, blocking access to their files unless they pay a ransom to the attacker to get the decryption key. In this tutorial, you'll learn how easy it is to use the USB Rubber Ducky, which is disguised as an ordinary flash drive, to deploy ransomware on a victim's computer within seconds. With an attack that only takes a moment, you'll need to know how to defend yourself.
When hacking Wi-Fi networks, having the right wireless adapter is essential. But hunting online for one can be a frustrating experience. To see how the handful of Kali-compatible adapters on the market measure up, I ran a series of tests to benchmark and compare their range, signal strength, and ability to enter monitor mode and perform packet injection. This should help you determine which adapter is right for your own hacking needs.
A mention of the deep web can bring to mind images of drugs, hackers, and other criminal activity. Despite the presence of these elements, the Tor network is a valuable tool for preserving privacy and anonymity. Browsing the deep web and any hidden services can be as simple as downloading the Tor Browser Bundle. In this guide, we will learn how easy it is to host our own hidden services and make them accessible via a custom onion address.
The Watch Dogs video game series came out in 2014, enamoring audiences with the idea of a seemingly magical smartphone that could change traffic signals, hack web cameras, and even remotely control forklifts. This may sound like science fiction, but The Sonic uses a customized flavor of Kali Linux to allow you to unleash the power of Kali from any smartphone — all without the need to create a hotspot to control it.
In October of 2017, Mathy Vanhoef released "Key Reinstallation Attacks: Forcing Nonce Reuse in WPA2." This paper demonstrates a way to decrypt traffic on practically any WPA2 network, the most commonly used form of wireless security (seeing as all other forms of Wi-Fi encryption have already been broken). Practically all of the network-connected devices we use will need to be updated in some way in order to protect against this vulnerability, each of them in a different way.
When we are building programs that communicate over a network, how can we keep our data private? The last thing we want is some other lousy hacker sniffing our packets, so how do we stop them? The easy answer: encryption. However, this is a very wide-ranging answer. Today we're going to look specifically at how to encrypt data in Python with dynamically generated encryption keys using what is known as the Diffie-Hellman key exchange.
If you need to scan a large number of domains for a specific web app vulnerability, Dorkbot may be the tool for you. Dorkbot uses search engines to locate dorks and then scan potentially vulnerable apps with a scanner module.
Armis Labs has revealed eight vulnerabilities, called "BlueBorne", which put 5.3 billion Android, iOS, Windows, and Linux devices that use Bluetooth at risk. With it, hackers can control devices, access data, and spread malware to other vulnerable devices through networks. In this post, we will learn about the vulnerabilities, then look at how to find devices that have them.
Code execution in Microsoft Word is easier than ever, thanks to recent research done by Etienne Stalmans and Saif El-Sherei. Executing code in MS Word can be complicated, in some cases requiring the use of Macros or memory corruption. Fortunately, Microsoft has a built in a feature that we can abuse to have the same effect. The best part, it does so without raising any User Account Control security warnings. Let's look at how it's done.
This weeks' article on Pupy made me wish for a RAT that could be targeted at an OS frequently used by gatekeepers at startups, tech companies, and creative firms: macOS. Once run, a RAT can do particularly severe damage by dumping a user's stored credentials for many accounts. The best loot lives in the Chrome Password cache, so today we'll be using EvilOSX, an OS X RAT, to infiltrate macOS and dump these credentials.
Surveillance is always a useful tool in a hacker's arsenal, whether deployed offensively or defensively. Watching targets yourself isn't always practical, and traditional surveillance camera systems can be costly, lacking in capabilities, or both. Today, we will use motionEyeOS running on a Raspberry Pi Zero to create a small, concealable Wi-Fi connected spy camera that is both affordable and easily concealed.
In one of my previous articles, I discussed ShinoBot, a remote administration tool that makes itself obvious. The goal is to see if the user could detect a remote administration tool or RAT on their system. In this article, I'll be demonstrating the use of Pupy, an actual RAT, on a target Ubuntu 16.04 server.
Tor is an excellent obfuscation network for web traffic, and while instant messaging over the network is very useful, it can be relatively difficult to configure. In this guide, we'll look at two synchronous communications platforms (instant messengers) which can be routed over the Tor network, Ricochet and XMPP.