Null Byte How-Tos

How To: Advanced Techniques to Bypass & Defeat XSS Filters, Part 1

There is no shortage of defenses against cross-site scripting (XSS) since it is so prevalent on the web today. Filters are one of the most common implementations used to prevent this type of attack, usually configured as a blacklist of known bad expressions or based on regex evaluation. But there is hope with a wide variety of techniques that can be used to defeat these filters.

Buyer's Guide: Top 20 Hacker Holiday Gifts of 2018

For the uninitiated, it can be difficult to buy that special hacker in your life a perfect holiday gift. That's why we've taken out the guesswork and curated a list of the top 20 most popular items our readers are buying. Whether you're buying a gift for a friend or have been dying to share this list with someone shopping for you, we've got you covered with our 2018 selection of hacker holiday gifts.

Hacking Gear: 10 Essential Gadgets Every Hacker Should Try

If you've grown bored of day-to-day hacking and need a new toy to experiment with, we've compiled a list of gadgets to help you take password cracking and wireless hacking to the next level. If you're not a white hat or pentester yourself but have one to shop for, whether for a birthday, Christmas present, or other gift-giving reason, these also make great gift ideas.

How to Hack Wi-Fi: Cracking WPA2 Passwords Using the New PMKID Hashcat Attack

Cracking the password for WPA2 networks has been roughly the same for many years, but a new attack requires less interaction and information than previous techniques and has the added advantage of being able to target access points with no one connected. This new attack against the PMKID uses Hashcat to crack WPA passwords and allows hackers to find networks with weak passwords more easily.

How To: Advanced Techniques to Bypass & Defeat XSS Filters, Part 2

Cross-site scripting can be one of the easiest vulnerabilities to discover, but to be successful with this type of attack, it is essential to learn how to get past filters. In the previous guide, we explored some ways to do this, such as abusing attributes and event handlers and tricking the application into accepting unusual characters. Now, let's take a look at more techniques used to defeat filters.

How To: The Ultimate Guide to Hacking macOS

Apple's macOS operating system is just as vulnerable to attacks as any Windows 10 computer or Android smartphone. Hacker's can embed backdoors, evade antivirus with simple commands, and utilize USB flash drives to completely compromise a MacBook. In this always-updated guide, we'll outline dozens of macOS-specific attacks penetration testers should know about.

How To: Detect When a Device Is Nearby with the ESP8266 Friend Detector

Smartphones and other Wi-Fi enabled devices send radio signals called probe frames to locate nearby wireless networks, which makes them easy to track by listening for their unique MAC address. To show how this kind of tracking works, we can program a NodeMCU in Arduino to sniff the air for packets from any device we want to track, turning on an LED when it's detected nearby.

How To: Detect & Classify Wi-Fi Jamming Packets with the NodeMCU

The most common Wi-Fi jamming attacks leverage deauthentication and disassociation packets to attack networks. This allows a low-cost ESP8266-based device programmed in Arduino to detect and classify Wi-Fi denial-of-service attacks by lighting a different color LED for each type of packet. The pattern of these colors can also allow us to fingerprint the tool being used to attack the network.

How To: Use an ESP8266 Beacon Spammer to Track Smartphone Users

Smartphones and laptops are constantly sending Wi-Fi radio signals, and many of these signals can be used to track us. In this guide, we'll program a cheap IoT device in Arduino to create hundreds of fake networks with common names; This will cause nearby devices to reveal their real trackable MAC address, and it can even let an attacker take over the phone's data connection with no warning.

How To: Exploit Java Remote Method Invocation to Get Root

In the world of technology, there's often a trade-off between convenience and security. The Java Remote Method Invocation is a system where that trade-off is all too real. The ability for a program written in Java to communicate with another program remotely can greatly extend the usability of an app, but it can also open up critical vulnerabilities that allow it to be compromised by an attacker.

How To: Use Metasploit's WMAP Module to Scan Web Applications for Common Vulnerabilities

Having an efficient workflow is an integral part of any craft, but it's especially important when it comes to probing apps for vulnerabilities. While Metasploit is considered the de facto standard when it comes to exploitation, it also contains modules for other activities, such as scanning. Case in point, WMAP, a web application scanner available for use from within the Metasploit framework.

How To: Get Started Writing Your Own NSE Scripts for Nmap

The road to becoming a skilled white hat is paved with many milestones, one of those being learning how to perform a simple Nmap scan. A little further down that road lies more advanced scanning, along with utilizing a powerful feature of Nmap called the Nmap Scripting Engine. Even further down the road is learning how to modify and write scripts for NSE, which is what we'll be doing today.

How To: The Easy Way to Use PGP for Encrypting Emails on Windows, Mac & Linux

In order to increase the security and harden the integrity of an email account and its content, you'll want to use PGP on your Windows, macOS, or Linux computer. This is usually the first thing security analysts do to protect communications with encryption, and everyone else should consider it too, especially since there's an easy way to incorporate PGP that anyone can follow.

How To: Conduct OSINT Recon on a Target Domain with Raccoon Scanner

Reconnaissance is the phase of an attack where a red team or hacker designs a strategy based on the information they can learn about the target, as well as what the available attack surface looks like. These scans can take time to discover relationships, but Raccoon OSINT scanner coordinates multiple automated scans to produce invasively detailed reports on a target with a single command.

How To: Use the Buscador OSINT VM for Conducting Online Investigations

For anyone using open source information to conduct an investigation, a balance between powerful tools and privacy controls are a must. Buscador is a virtual machine packed full of useful OSINT tools and streamlined for online research. This program can easily be set up in VirtualBox, and once that's done, we'll walk you through some of the most useful tools included in it.

How To: Exploit Remote File Inclusion to Get a Shell

A simple security flaw can allow an attacker to gain a strong foothold with little effort on their part. When a web application permits remotely hosted files to be loaded without any validation, a whole can of worms is opened up, with consequences ranging from simple website defacement to full-on code execution. For this reason, RFI can be a promising path to obtaining a shell.

Hacking macOS: How to Perform Situational Awareness Attacks, Part 1 (Using System_Profiler & ARP)

The first few minutes after gaining access to a MacBook are critical — but where do we begin? Using tools built into macOS, we can develop an in-depth understanding of running background processes, detect antivirus software, locate sensitive files, and fingerprint other devices on the network. All of this can be done without installing additional software or modifying any files.

How To: Discover Open Ports Using Metasploit's Built-in Port Scanner

One of the first steps in reconnaissance is determining the open ports on a system. Nmap is widely considered the undisputed king of port scanning, but certain situations call for different tools. Metasploit makes it easy to conduct port scanning from directly inside the framework, and we'll show you three types of port scans: TCP, SYN, and XMAS.

How To: Abuse Session Management with OWASP ZAP

It's always a good idea to know how an attack works at the very basic level. Manual techniques for exploitation often find holes that even the most sophisticated tool cannot. Sometimes, though, using one of these tools can make things so much easier, especially if one has a solid foundation of how it works. One such tool can help us perform a cross-site request forgery with minimal difficulty.

How To: Manipulate User Credentials with a CSRF Attack

Web 2.0 technology has provided a convenient way to post videos online, keep up with old friends on social media, and even bank from the comfort of your web browser. But when applications are poorly designed or incorrectly configured, certain flaws can be exploited. One such flaw, known as CSRF, allows an attacker to use a legitimate user's session to execute unauthorized requests to the server.

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