The road to becoming a skilled white hat is paved with many milestones, one of those being learning how to perform a simple Nmap scan. A little further down that road lies more advanced scanning, along with utilizing a powerful feature of Nmap called the Nmap Scripting Engine. Even further down the road is learning how to modify and write scripts for NSE, which is what we'll be doing today.
In order to increase the security and harden the integrity of an email account and its content, you'll want to use PGP on your Windows, macOS, or Linux computer. This is usually the first thing security analysts do to protect communications with encryption, and everyone else should consider it too, especially since there's an easy way to incorporate PGP that anyone can follow.
Hacking macOS: How to Perform Situational Awareness Attacks, Part 2 (Finding Files, History & USB Devices)
It's important to know whom you're dealing with after hacking your target's MacBook. Getting remote access is simple, but covertly gathering information about the user and their system can be a challenge.
Reconnaissance is the phase of an attack where a red team or hacker designs a strategy based on the information they can learn about the target, as well as what the available attack surface looks like. These scans can take time to discover relationships, but Raccoon OSINT scanner coordinates multiple automated scans to produce invasively detailed reports on a target with a single command.
For anyone using open source information to conduct an investigation, a balance between powerful tools and privacy controls are a must. Buscador is a virtual machine packed full of useful OSINT tools and streamlined for online research. This program can easily be set up in VirtualBox, and once that's done, we'll walk you through some of the most useful tools included in it.
A simple security flaw can allow an attacker to gain a strong foothold with little effort on their part. When a web application permits remotely hosted files to be loaded without any validation, a whole can of worms is opened up, with consequences ranging from simple website defacement to full-on code execution. For this reason, RFI can be a promising path to obtaining a shell.
The first few minutes after gaining access to a MacBook are critical — but where do we begin? Using tools built into macOS, we can develop an in-depth understanding of running background processes, detect antivirus software, locate sensitive files, and fingerprint other devices on the network. All of this can be done without installing additional software or modifying any files.
One of the first steps in reconnaissance is determining the open ports on a system. Nmap is widely considered the undisputed king of port scanning, but certain situations call for different tools. Metasploit makes it easy to conduct port scanning from directly inside the framework, and we'll show you three types of port scans: TCP, SYN, and XMAS.
Nmap is more powerful than you know. With a few scripts, we can extend its functionality beyond a simple port scanner and start to identify details about target servers sysadmins don't want us to know.
Kali Linux, by default, probably doesn't have everything you need to get you through day-to-day penetration testing with ease. With a few tips, tricks, and applications, we can quickly get started using Kali like a professional white hat.
It's not uncommon for hackers to attempt to move laterally between devices in proximity of a compromised device to maintain a prolonged presence in the network. Malware utilizing USB flash sticks to self-replicate and compromise air-gapped machines isn't a new concept.
As penetration testers, we sometimes need to securely store customer data for prolonged periods. Bruteforce-resistant, vault-like containers can be created with just a few commands to protect ourselves from physical attacks and unintended data disclosures.
With just one line of Ruby code embedded into a fake PDF, a hacker can remotely control any Mac computer from anywhere in the world. Creating the command is the easy part, but getting the target to open the code is where a hacker will need to get creative.
Gmail conversations, Facebook private messages, and personal photos can all be viewed by a hacker who has backdoor access to a target's Mac. By livestreaming the desktop or exfiltrating screenshots, this information can be used for blackmail and targeted social engineering attacks to further compromise the mark.
It's always a good idea to know how an attack works at the very basic level. Manual techniques for exploitation often find holes that even the most sophisticated tool cannot. Sometimes, though, using one of these tools can make things so much easier, especially if one has a solid foundation of how it works. One such tool can help us perform a cross-site request forgery with minimal difficulty.
Web 2.0 technology has provided a convenient way to post videos online, keep up with old friends on social media, and even bank from the comfort of your web browser. But when applications are poorly designed or incorrectly configured, certain flaws can be exploited. One such flaw, known as CSRF, allows an attacker to use a legitimate user's session to execute unauthorized requests to the server.
After gaining access to a root account, the next order of business is using that power to do something more significant. If the user passwords on the system can be obtained and cracked, an attacker can use them to pivot to other machines if the login is the same across systems. There are two tried-and-true password cracking tools that can accomplish this: John the Ripper and Hashcat.
Hackers and makers are often grouped under the same label. While hackers draw on computer science skills to write programs and find bugs, makers use electrical engineering to create hardware prototypes from microprocessor boards like the Arduino. We'll exercise both sets of skills to program a $6 NodeMCU to display the status of a Wi-Fi link via an LED, allowing us to monitor for jamming attacks.
In most macOS hacks, a non-root terminal is used to create a backdoor into the device. A lot of damage can be done as a low-privileged user, but it has its limitations. Think twice before granting a file permission to execute — an attacker might be able to convert your harmless scripts into persistent root backdoors.
Locating and abusing files containing unsafe permissions is an easy and surefire way to elevate shell privileges on a backdoored macOS device. This time around, we'll be more aggressive and attempt to phish a user's login password by prompting a convincing popup message merely asking the target for their password.
MacOS isn't known as an ideal operating system for hacking without customization, but it includes native tools that allow easy control of the Wi-Fi radio for packet sniffing. Changing channels, scanning for access points, and even capturing packets all can be done from the command line. We'll use aliasing to set some simple commands for easy native packet capture on a macOS system.
Getting root is considered the Holy Grail in the world of Linux exploitation. Much like SYSTEM on Windows, the root account provides full administrative access to the operating system. Sometimes even a successful exploit will only give a low-level shell; In that case, a technique called privilege escalation can be used to gain access to more powerful accounts and completely own the system.
Using Netcat to backdoor a macOS device has its short-comings. If the compromised Mac goes to sleep, the Netcat background process will occasionally fail to terminate correctly; This leaves Netcat running infinitely in the background and the attacker with no new way into the device. As an alternative, we'll use the lesser-known Tcl shell which can handle abrupt backdoor disconnections.
There are nearly 100,000 unique onion service addresses online with over two million people using Tor every single day. Join me as I explore a small fraction of what the Tor network has to offer.
Net neutrality is dead and your internet service providers can collect all the data they want. While VPNs are a great way to protect some of that privacy, they're not perfect. There is another option, though, called Noisy, which was created by Itay Hury. It floods your ISP with so much random HTTP/DNS noise that your data is useless to anyone even if they do get it.
Due to weaknesses in the way Wi-Fi works, it's extremely easy to disrupt most Wi-Fi networks using tools that forge deauthentication packets. The ease with which these common tools can jam networks is only matched by how simple they are to detect for anyone listening for them. We'll use Wireshark to discover a Wi-Fi attack in progress and determine which tool the attacker is using.
Just like cash, bitcoin is used for everything from regular day-to-day business to criminal activities. However, unlike physical cash, the blockchain is permanent and immutable, which means anyone from a teen to the US government can follow every single transaction you make without you even knowing about it. However, there are ways to add layers of anonymity to your bitcoin transactions.
As Android bug bounty hunters and penetration testers, we need a properly configured environment to work in when testing exploits and looking for vulnerabilities. This could mean a virtual Android operating system or a dedicated network for capturing requests and performing man-in-the-middle attacks.
If you need to hack an Android device, try a remote administration tool. Known more familiarly as a RAT, there are open-source RATs that are barebones and exorbitantly priced RATs that are more polished. There are also low-cost and polished RATs that aren't intended to be RATs at all, such as Cerberus, an anti-theft solution available right on Google Play.
Wi-Fi devices are continually emitting "probe frames," calling out for nearby Wi-Fi networks to connect to. Beyond being a privacy risk, probe frames can also be used to track or take over the data connection of nearby devices. We'll explain how to see nearby devices emitting probe frames using Probequest and what can be done with this information.
One of the most critical bugs to come out in the last five years was Shellshock, a vulnerability which allows attackers to execute arbitrary code via the Unix Bash shell remotely. This vulnerability has been around for a while now, but due to the ubiquity of Unix machines connected to the web, Shellshock is still a very real threat, especially for unpatched systems.
Most users don't realize how much valuable data is in their network traffic. With a few simple tools, an attacker can quickly pick out cookies, passwords, and DNS queries from a macOS device as it covertly streams the victim's network traffic to the attacker's system. Here, we will cover two methods for analyzing packets flowing from a Mac.
With the rise of website encryption (TLS), sniffing passwords from network activity has become difficult. However, it's still possible to quietly exfiltrate a target's network traffic in real time to extract passwords and sensitive information. Pertaining to macOS, there are two methods for retrieving traffic from a backdoored Mac.
You may have heard of a signal jammer before, usually referring to a device that blasts out a strong enough radio signal to drown out the reception of nearby devices like cell phones. Purpose-built jammer hardware is outright illegal in many countries, but Wi-Fi is vulnerable to several different jamming attacks that can be done with Kali Linux and a wireless network adapter.
Russian cyber disinformation campaigns have many missions, but one of particular interest is using technology to monitor, influence, and disrupt online communications surrounding culturally sensitive topics or protests. The ability to watch these events, and even filter positive or negative tweets to amplify, gives rise to the ability to execute a number of disinformation campaigns.
Transferring hundreds of screenshots, webcam recordings, keystroke logs, and audio recordings between your VPS and a local Kali machine can be tricky. Services like Dropbox don't always have the best privacy policies and suffer data breaches just like any other website. To mitigate these risks, we'll use a secure, open source, and decentralized alternative.
How To: Beginner's Guide to OWASP Juice Shop, Your Practice Hacking Grounds for the 10 Most Common Web App Vulnerabilities
Web application vulnerabilities are one of the most crucial points of consideration in any penetration test or security evaluation. While some security areas require a home network or computer for testing, creating a test website to learn web app security requires a slightly different approach. For a safe environment to learn about web app hacking, the OWASP Juice Shop can help.
Command injection is a technique used by hackers to execute system commands on a server, usually via a web application or some kind of GUI. This can happen when an application provides some sort of functionality to the user involving the use of system commands. When the input is not properly sanitized, commands not originally intended to be run are allowed to be executed.
How To: Hack 200 Online User Accounts in Less Than 2 Hours (From Sites Like Twitter, Reddit & Microsoft)
Leaked databases get passed around the internet and no one seems to notice. We've become desensitized to the data breaches that occur on a daily basis because it happens so frequently. Join me as I illustrate why reusing passwords across multiple websites is a truly awful practice — and compromise hundreds of social media accounts in the process.
Wi-Fi tools keep getting more and more accessible to beginners, and the LAZY script is a framework of serious penetration tools that can be explored easily from within it. This powerful and simple tool can be used for everything from installing new add-ons to grabbing a WPA handshake in a matter of seconds. Plus, it's easy to install, set up, and utilize.