Python Training

How To: Python 2 vs. Python 3 — Important Differences Every Hacker Should Know

Python is commonly touted as one of the best programming languages for beginners to learn, and its straightforward syntax and functionality makes that hard to argue with. But a lot of tutorials still use Python 2, which is outdated now. Python 3 introduces many new features, and it's important to be aware of them going forward, as well as the key differences between Python 3 and its predecessor.

How To: Program MicroPython NeoPixel Holiday Lights to Animate However You Want

Individually addressable LEDs, also commonly called "NeoPixels" after the popular Adafruit product, are a bright and colorful way to get started with basic Python programming. With an inexpensive ESP8266 or ESP32 microcontroller, it's easy to get started programming your own holiday lighting animations on a string of NeoPixels with beginner-friendly MicroPython!

How To: Get Started with MicroPython for ESP8266 Microcontrollers

For anyone interested in using cheap, Wi-Fi-connected microcontrollers like the ESP8266, the Arduino programming language can be a barrier to entry. Based on C++, Arduino requires knowledge of more computer science than languages like Python. Fortunately for beginners, setting up MicroPython on an ESP8266 allows anyone to write Python on affordable microcontrollers in a matter of minutes.

How to Train Your Python: Part 23, the Argparse Module

Hello everyone. It's been a while since I've posted anything (with good reason). But, now that the digital dust has settled, it's time to be an adult about this. I will be continuing to post to Null Byte on a smaller scale, and will also fully participate in whatever communities Null Byte members branch into.

How To: Build an Evasive Shell in Python, Part 1: Introduction & Concepts

Hello, everyone. Stealth is a large part of any successful hack; if we don't get noticed, we're much less likely to be caught. In these next few articles, we'll be building a shell based on keeping us hidden from a firewall. There are many ways to stay hidden from a firewall, but we'll only be incorporating a couple into our shell. This article will outline and explain these evasion concepts and techniques.

How to Train Your Python: Part 10, Making Our Own Functions

Welcome back! In the last iteration of how to train your python, we covered error detection and handling. Today we'll be diverging from this and discussing functions. More specifically, we'll be creating our own functions. First we'll need to understand exactly what a function is, then we'll get on to making our own! So, let's get started!

How to Train Your Python: Part 9, Basics of Error Detection and Handling

Welcome back! In the last iteration of how to train your python, we covered loops, today we'll be covering something that I wish I had learned about much earlier in my scripting career, errors. We all run into them, and they can be frustrating, but there is also a silver lining to them. Today, we'll be discussing why some errors are unavoidable, and what we can do when we run into them. Also, this article will be more of a concept and less of writing actual code, but the information is equall...

How to Train Your Python: Part 4, Basic User Input

In the last iteration of how to train your python, we covered basic string manipulation and how we can use it to better evaluate user input. So, today we'll be covering how to take user input. User input is very important to scripting. How can we do what the user says if we can't tell what the user wants? There are multiple ways to take input, we can give the user a prompt and take input from them directly, or we could use flags/switches, and take their input before the script is even execute...

How to Train Your Python: Part 3, Basic String Manipulation

Last time in how to train you python, we covered the basics of variables and output. While we were covering variables, we talked briefly about strings. "String" is just a fancier way of saying "Word". A string is simply a set of characters encased in quotations, this lets python know that it is a word. Sometimes when we do things with strings we'll need to change them in order to do something. Python is case sensitive, for example "Null-Byte" is not the same as "null-byte". This is where mani...

How to Train Your Python: Part 1, Introduction

Recently I've been looking around our wonderful community and I've seen some absolutely hands-down fantastic python scripting articles. But, in the end, these series weren't very extensive. I've been wanting to do a series on teaching python for a while now, and I don't mean just the basics, I mean to make an extensive series that takes it all the way from "Hello, World!" to popular third party modules, and everything in between!

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