Flight disruptions can cost billions of dollars, but most modern commercial flights rely on air traffic control systems that harbor serious vulnerabilities. By 2020, the transition will be complete to a system called NextGen, which relies on Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast, or ADS-B for short.
In my previous article, we learned how to generate a vulnerable virtual machine using SecGen to safely and legally practice hacking. In this tutorial, we will put it all together, and learn how to actually hack our practice VM. This will provide some insight into the methodology behind an actual attack and demonstrate the proper way to practice on a VM.
Recently, I ran across SecGen, a project which allows a user to create random vulnerable machines. I absolutely love vulnerable machines, since a vulnerable VM is a safe and legal way to practice hacking tactics, test out new tools, and exercise your puzzle-solving skills.
Cross-compilation allows you to develop for one platform (like Kali) and compile to run on a different platform (such as Windows). For developers, it means that they can work on their platform of choice and compile their code for their target platform. For hackers, it means we can compile exploit code for Windows from Kali.
PowerShell Empire is a post-exploitation framework for computers and servers running Microsoft Windows, Windows Server operating systems, or both. In these tutorials, we will be exploring everything from how to install Powershell Empire to how to snoop around a victim's computer without the antivirus software knowing about it. If we are lucky, we might even be able to obtain domain administrator credentials and own the whole network.
A remote administration tool, or RAT, is a piece of software used for remotely controlling machines. They are commonly used by tech support to gain remote access for troubleshooting purposes, but RATs are also an important part of a hacker's advanced persistent threat (APT) toolkit. Unlike standard administration RATs, these tools are designed to be delivered stealthily and operate undetected.
Imagine for a moment that a VPN is like putting on a disguise for your computer. This disguise works to change your IP address, secure your traffic with encryption, and mask your location to bypass regional restrictions. This makes it a helpful tool for both whistleblowers and journalists. VPNs are also built into the well-known Tor Browser.
Airgeddon is a multi-Bash network auditor capable of Wi-Fi jamming. This capability allows you to target and disconnect devices from a wireless network, all without needing to join it. Airgeddon runs on Kali Linux, and I will show you how to install, configure, and use the jamming functionalities on a small and inexpensive Raspberry Pi. When done correctly, it will deny service to a wireless network for up to several blocks.
In my previous article, I discussed installing and configuring OpenVAS on Kali Linux. Now it's time to start using OpenVAS with the Greenbone Security Assistant to audit networks for security issues. This can be extremely helpful when you are looking for vulnerabilities or misconfigurations in a large number of hosts.
OpenVAS is a powerful vulnerability assessment tool. Forked from Nessus after Nessus became a proprietary product, OpenVAS stepped in to fill the niche. OpenVAS really shines for information gathering in large networks where manual scanning to establish a foothold can be time-consuming. OpenVAS is also helpful for administrators who need to identify potential security issues on a network.
Sharing your Wi-Fi password is like giving an unlimited pass to snoop around your network, allowing direct access even to LAN-connected devices like printers, routers, and security cameras. Most networks allow users to scan and attempt to log in to these connected devices. And if you haven't changed the default password on these devices, an attacker can simply try plugging them in.
Tossing an old Android smartphone with a decent battery into your hacking kit can let you quickly map hundreds of vulnerable networks in your area just by walking or driving by them. The practice of wardriving uses a Wi-Fi network card and GPS receiver to stealthily discover and record the location and settings of any nearby routers, and your phone allows you to easily discover those with security issues.
RouterSploit is a powerful exploit framework similar to Metasploit, working to quickly identify and exploit common vulnerabilities in routers. And guess what. It can be run on most Android devices.
In this how-to, I will be demonstrating a few of the tactical applications of Besside-ng, the hidden gem of the Aircrack-ng suite of Wi-Fi hacking tools. When run with a wireless network adapter capable of packet injection, Besside-ng can harvest WPA handshakes from any network with an active user — and crack WEP passwords outright. Unlike many tools, it requires no special dependencies and can be run via SSH, making it easy to deploy remotely.
If you need a tiny, flexible attack platform for raining down human-interface-device (HID) attacks on unattended computers, the USB Rubber Ducky is the most popular tool for the job. By loading the Ducky with custom firmware, you can design new attacks to be effective against even air-gapped computers without internet access. Today, you'll learn to write a payload to make "involuntary backups" through copying a targeted folder to the Ducky's USB mass storage.
The Operative Framework is a powerful Python-based open-source intelligence (OSINT) tool that can be used to find domains registered by the same email address, as well as many other investigative functions. This reconnaissance tool provides insight about your target through examining relationships in the domains they own.
To hack a Wi-Fi network using Kali Linux, you need your wireless card to support monitor mode and packet injection. Not all wireless cards can do this, so I've rounded up this list of 2017's best wireless network adapters for hacking on Kali Linux to get you started hacking both WEP and WPA Wi-Fi networks.
A man-in-the-middle attack places you between your target and the internet, pretending to be a Wi-Fi network while secretly inspecting every packet that flows through the connection. The WiFi-Pumpkin is a rogue AP framework to easily create these fake networks, all while forwarding legitimate traffic to and from the unsuspecting target. Today, we'll learn to set up this framework on a low-cost Raspberry Pi running Kali Linux.
The Raspberry Pi loads an operating system from whatever SD card you insert, allowing you to keep different operating systems on separate SD cards depending on which OS you wish to run. A tool called BerryBoot cuts down on the number of SD cards needed by providing the ability to boot multiple operating systems from a single SD card, similar to Boot Camp for Mac computers. With BerryBoot, a single 32 GB SD card can hold multiple penetration testing tools and distros.
The USB Rubber Ducky comes with two software components, the payload script to be deployed and the firmware which controls how the Ducky behaves and what kind of device it pretends to be. This firmware can be reflashed to allow for custom Ducky behaviors, such as mounting USB mass storage to copy files from any system the Duck is plugged into.
Open-source data scraping is an essential reconnaissance tool for government agencies and hackers alike, with big data turning our digital fingerprints into giant neon signs. The problem is no longer whether the right data exists, it's filtering it down to the exact answer you want. TheHarvester is a Python email scraper which does just that by searching open-source data for target email addresses.
A router is the core of anyone's internet experience, but sadly most people don't spend much time setting up this critical piece of hardware. Old firmware, default passwords, and other configuration issues continue to haunt many organizations. Exploiting the poor, neglected computer inside these routers has become so popular and easy that automated tools have been created to make the process a breeze.
Surveying a target's Wi-Fi infrastructure is the first step to understanding the wireless attack surface you have to work with.
The world is full of vulnerable computers. As you learn how to interact with them, it will be both tempting and necessary to test out these newfound skills on a real target. Today, I'll introduce a deliberately vulnerable Raspberry Pi image designed to help you practice and take your hacking skills to the next level.
Social engineering makes headlines because human behavior is often the weakest link of even well-defended targets. Automated social engineering tools can help reclusive hackers touch these techniques, but the study of how to hack human interactions in person is often ignored. Today, we will examine how to use subtle, hard to detect persuasion techniques to compromise a human target.
It's no secret that devices leak data, but sometimes they do so in ways you may not expect. Your phone, laptop, printer, and IOT devices leak Wi-Fi information that can (and is) used to track you.
While the USB Rubber Ducky is well known by hackers as a tool for quick in-person keystroke injection attacks, one of the original uses for it was automation. In this guide, I'll be going the latter, explaining how we can use it to automate Wi-Fi handshake harvesting on the Raspberry Pi without using a screen or any other input.
In our first part on software-defined radio and signals intelligence, we learned how to set up a radio listening station to find and decode hidden radio signals — just like the hackers who triggered the emergency siren system in Dallas, Texas, probably did. Now that we can hear in the radio spectrum, it's time to explore the possibilities of broadcasting in a radio-connected world.
How to Hack Radio Frequencies: Building a Radio Listening Station to Decode Digital Audio & Police Dispatches
On April 7, 2017, residents in Dallas, Texas, woke to the sound of emergency sirens blaring all over the city. No one could shut them off, and after repeated efforts to contain the situation, the city had to shut down the entire system. While the media reported a sophisticated computer hack was responsible, the truth was much less high-tech.
Keystroke injection attacks are popular because they exploit the trust computers have in human interface devices (HIDs). One of the most popular and easily accessible keystroke injection tools is the USB Rubber Ducky from Hack5, which has a huge range of uses beyond simple HID attacks. The USB Rubber Ducky can be used to attack any unlocked computer in seconds or to automate processes and save time.
In five short years, three generations of ultra-low-cost Raspberry Pi devices have challenged the boundaries of what a person can do with a $35 computer. With each more powerful and cheaper than the last, the addition of the Pi Zero in 2015 took the same Broadcom BCM2835 processor from the original Pi and put it on a tiny 1.18-inch board. This tiny form factor has powered attacks like PoisonTap and even drones, but the one thing lacking has been the connectivity of the Pi 3.
The Raspberry Pi is a credit card-sized computer that can crack Wi-Fi, clone key cards, break into laptops, and even clone an existing Wi-Fi network to trick users into connecting to the Pi instead. It can jam Wi-Fi for blocks, track cell phones, listen in on police scanners, broadcast an FM radio signal, and apparently even fly a goddamn missile into a helicopter.
Dirty, malformed, and outright mischievous text strings have long been the enemy of interactive website developers. Strings contain any combination of letters, numbers, spaces, and punctuation, and are entered into text boxes on websites by users. These strings in particular can do everything from highlighting XSS vulnerabilities to soliciting 404 error pages.
SSH local forwarding is a must for covering your tracks and getting out there to do your work. Also called SSH tunneling, this process will put one or more steps between your machine and the machine you're working on, for security and other purposes. It can be a bit daunting for newbies to get down, and that's where Punchabunch comes in.
With tools such as Reaver becoming less and less viable options for penetration testers as ISPs replace vulnerable routers, there becomes fewer certainties about which tools will work against a particular target. If you don't have time to crack the WPA password, or it is unusually strong, it can be hard to figure out your next step. Luckily, nearly all systems have one common vulnerability you can count on—users!
Sometimes you need a password to gain access to an older running Windows system. Maybe it's a machine in your basement you forgot about or a locked machine that belonged to a disgruntled employee. Maybe you just want to try out your pentesting skills.
In the first part of my containers series, we learned how to install Docker on our local machine, pull down "hello-world" and Ubuntu containers, SSH into containers, and install software when in a container. Now, we're going to work on building, customizing, and storing our refined hacking Ubuntu container. Before we dive right in, though, let's make sure we still have a functional Docker installation.
At this point in our series on creating a customized hacking container, you should be able to use Docker to save and retrieve customized instances of Ubuntu from your own machine. Make sure to revisit part one and part two if you need a refresher.
Containers are isolated software instances representing applications, servers, and even operating systems—complete with all of their dependencies, libraries configuration files, etc.—and they're taking over the corporate world. The ephemeral, portable nature of containers help them stay current and speedy, and they can work on pretty much any computer, virtual machine, and cloud.
Backdoors are convenient to leave behind once you've already found a way into a server, and they can come in handy for a variety of reasons. They're good for developers who want a quick way into machines they're working on, or for systems administrators who want similar access. Of course, backdoors are also a hacker's best friend, and can be added in a variety of ways. One good tool for doing this is Weevely, which uses a snippet of PHP code.