Null Byte Features

How To: Upgrade a Dumb Shell to a Fully Interactive Shell for More Flexibility

One of the most exciting things as an ethical hacker, in my opinion, is catching a reverse shell. But often, these shells are limited, lacking the full power and functionality of a proper terminal. Certain things don't work in these environments, and they can be troublesome to work with. Luckily, with a few commands, we can upgrade to a fully interactive shell with all the bells and whistles.

How To: Use Kismet to Watch Wi-Fi User Activity Through Walls

Your home has walls for privacy, but Wi-Fi signals passing through them and can be detected up to a mile away with a directional Wi-Fi antenna and a direct line of sight. An amazing amount of information can be learned from this data, including when residents come and go, the manufacturer of all nearby wireless devices, and what on the network is in use at any given time.

How To: Catch an Internet Catfish with Grabify Tracking Links

Featured on MTV's Catfish TV series, in season 7, episode 8, Grabify is a tracking link generator that makes it easy to catch an online catfish in a lie. With the ability to identify the IP address, location, make, and model of any device that opens on a cleverly disguised tracking link, Grabify can even identify information leaked from behind a VPN.

How To: Exploit Recycled Credentials with H8mail to Break into User Accounts

Many online users worry about their accounts being breached by some master hacker, but the more likely scenario is falling victim to a bot written to use leaked passwords in data breaches from companies like LinkedIn, MySpace, and Tumblr. For instance, a tool called H8mail can search through over 1 billion leaked credentials to discover passwords that might still be in use today.

How To: Fuzz Parameters, Directories & More with Ffuf

The art of fuzzing is a vital skill for any penetration tester or hacker to possess. The faster you fuzz, and the more efficiently you are at doing it, the closer you come to achieving your goal, whether that means finding a valid bug or discovering an initial attack vector. A tool called ffuf comes in handy to help speed things along and fuzz for parameters, directors, and more.

How To: Crack Password-Protected ZIP Files, PDFs & More with Zydra

Everybody knows not to store sensitive information in unencrypted files, right? PDFs and ZIP files can often contain a treasure trove of information, such as network diagrams, IP addresses, and login credentials. Sometimes, even certain files that are encrypted aren't safe from attackers. That's where Zydra comes in — a tool for cracking RAR files, ZIP files, PDF files, and Linux shadow files.

How To: Phish Social Media Sites with SocialFish

Phishing is the easiest way to get your password stolen, as it only takes one mistake to log in to the wrong website. A convincing phishing site is key to a successful attempt, and tools to create them have become intuitive and more sophisticated. SocialFish allows a hacker to create a persuasive phishing page for nearly any website, offering a web interface with an Android app for remote control.

How To: Run Kali Linux as a Windows Subsystem

Kali Linux is known as being the de facto penetration-testing Linux distribution but can be a pain to use as an everyday OS — even more of a pain if that means carrying around a second laptop or the constant frustration of using the finicky Wi-Fi on virtual machines. But there's another option: installing a Kali subsystem on your Windows computer as a convenient compromise.

How To: Brute-Force WPA/WPA2 via GPU

Most of you lot would be aware what WPA/WPA2 is so I won't bang on about the encryption or protocols a great deal. In short WPA and WPA2 both have a maximum of 256bit encrypted with a maximum of 64 characters in the password. The encryption is really only 64bit but x 4 because of the way the authentication functions as a 4 way handshake.

How To: Make Your Own Bad USB

Hello, everyone! Many of you don't even know about my existence here on Null Byte, so I thought of contributing something rather interesting. Recently, someone asked how to make your own "Bad USB," and I promised to make a how-to on this topic. In addition, it would be nice to have something related on our WonderHowTo world. So here it is!

How To: Hack WPA & WPA2 Wi-Fi Passwords with a Pixie-Dust Attack Using Airgeddon

Design flaws in many routers can allow hackers to steal Wi-Fi credentials, even if WPA or WPA2 encryption is used with a strong password. While this tactic used to take up to 8 hours, the newer WPS Pixie-Dust attack can crack networks in seconds. To do this, a modern wireless attack framework called Airgeddon is used to find vulnerable networks, and then Bully is used to crack them.

How To: Set Up a Wi-Fi Spy Camera with an ESP32-CAM

The ESP32-CAM is a convenient little camera module with a lot of built-in power, and you can turn one into an inconspicuous spy camera to hide in any room. There's only one issue: it does omit a USB port. That makes it a little harder to program, but with an ESP32-based board, FTDI programmer, and some jumper wires, you'll have a programmed ESP32 Wi-Fi spy camera in no time.

How To: Intercept Images from a Security Camera Using Wireshark

It's common for IoT devices like Wi-Fi security cameras to host a website for controlling or configuring the camera that uses HTTP instead of the more secure HTTPS. This means anyone with the network password can see traffic to and from the camera, allowing a hacker to intercept security camera footage if anyone is watching the camera's HTTP viewing page.

How To: Use UFONet

With the release of the Mirai source code, botnets are back in a big way. In the early days of botnets, zombies (infected hosts) would report to IRC (Internet Relay Chat) channels for CNC (command and control) instructions. Modern botnets have evolved, but they continue to use the same concepts as their predecessors.

How To: Use Beginner Python to Build a Brute-Force Tool for SHA-1 Hashes

Developers creating login systems know better than to store passwords in plain text, usually storing hashes of a password to prevent storing the credentials in a way a hacker could steal. Due to the way hashes work, not all are created equal. Some are more vulnerable than others, and a little Python could be used to brute-force any weak hashes to get the passwords they were created from.

How To: Control Network Traffic with Evil Limiter to Throttle or Kick Off Devices

If you find yourself with a roommate hogging limited data bandwidth with video games or discover a neighbor has invited themselves into your Wi-Fi network, you can easily take back control of your internet access. Evil Limiter does this by letting you control the bit rate of any device on the same network as you, allowing you to slow or even stop data transfer speeds for them completely.

Hack Like a Pro: How to Find the Exact Location of Any IP Address

Welcome back, my tenderfoot hackers! Have you ever wondered where the physical location of an IP address is? Maybe you want to know if that proxy server you are using is actually out of your local legal jurisdiction. Or, maybe you have the IP address of someone you are corresponding with and want to make certain they are where they say they are. Or, maybe you are a forensic investigator tracking down a suspect who wrote a threatening email or hacked someone's company.

How To: Load Kali Linux on the Raspberry Pi 4 for the Ultimate Miniature Hacking Station

In 2019, the Raspberry Pi 4 was released with specs including either 1 GB, 2 GB, or 4 GB of memory, a Broadcom BCM2711B0 quad-core A72 SoC, a USB Type-C power supply, and dual Micro-HDMI outputs. Performance and hardware changes aside, the Pi 4 Model B runs Kali Linux just as well, if not better, than its predecessors. It also includes support for Wi-Fi hacking on its internal wireless card.

How To: Perform Local Privilege Escalation Using a Linux Kernel Exploit

Getting root is considered the Holy Grail in the world of Linux exploitation. Much like SYSTEM on Windows, the root account provides full administrative access to the operating system. Sometimes even a successful exploit will only give a low-level shell; In that case, a technique called privilege escalation can be used to gain access to more powerful accounts and completely own the system.

How To: Use the Cowrie SSH Honeypot to Catch Attackers on Your Network

The internet is constantly under siege by bots searching for vulnerabilities to attack and exploit. While conventional wisdom is to prevent these attacks, there are ways to deliberately lure hackers into a trap in order to spy on them, study their behavior, and capture samples of malware. In this tutorial, we'll be creating a Cowrie honeypot, an alluring target to attract and trap hackers.

How To: Exploring Kali Linux Alternatives: Set Up the Ultimate Beginner Arch Linux Hacking Distro with Manjaro & BlackArch

There's no doubt Kali has established itself as the most popular penetration distribution available. However, just because it's the fan favorite of beginners and security researchers doesn't make it right for everyone. Manjaro Linux is a beginner-friendly Arch-based distribution which can be easily weaponized with the Black Arch expansion, creating a friendlier first-time Arch experience.